Computational Biology and Biomedical-Informatics are great research areas for personalized medicine. Large scale bio-technologies enable biologists and clinicians to probe the human genome and proteome unbiased. Bioinformatics research on protein/gene sequences, structures, and functions facilitates biomarker discovery and validation for drug response prediction. System biology research on the gene/protein networks further extends our understanding of drug response mechanisms at the molecular level. Literature and medical record text mining on drugs, genes, diseases, and their associations reveals new drug targets and new predictors for drug responses.